A book about the command line for humans.
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Brennen Bearnes 5584abb1e8 random stuff 6 years ago
..
README.md split out notes chapter; tidy a few infelicities 7 years ago
addprop some stuff in general_purpose/ 7 years ago
findprop start general purpose chapter with that confession bit 7 years ago
index.md random stuff 6 years ago
markpoem some stuff in general_purpose/ 7 years ago
okpoems xargs -n1 in okpoems 7 years ago

README.md

  1. script =========

Back in chapter 1, I said that "the way you use the computer is often just to write little programs that invoke other programs". In fact, we've already gone over a bunch of these. Grepping through the text of a previous chapter should pull up some good examples:

$ grep -E '\$ [a-z]+.*\| ' ../literary_environment/index.md
    $ sort authors_* | uniq -c
    $ sort authors_* | uniq > ./all_authors
    $ find ~/p1k3/archives/2010/11 -regextype egrep -regex '.*([0-9]+|index)' -type f | xargs wc -w | tail -1
    $ sort authors_* | uniq | wc -l
    $ sort colors | uniq -i | tail -1
    $ cut -d' ' -f1 ./authors_* | sort | uniq -ci | sort -n | tail -3
    $ sort -u ./authors_* | cut -d' ' -f1 | uniq -ci | sort -n | tail -3
    $ sort -k1 all_authors.tsv | expand -t14
    $ paste firstnames lastnames | sort -k2 | expand -t12
    $ cat ./authors_* | grep 'Vanessa'

None of these one-liners do all that much, but they all take input of one sort or another and apply one or more transformations to it. They're little formal sentences describing how to make one thing into another, which is as good a definition of programming as most. Or at least this is a good way to describe programming-in-the-small. (A lot of the programs we use day-to-day are more like essays, novels, or interminable Fantasy series where every character you like dies horribly than they are like individual sentences.)

One-liners like these are all well and good when you're staring at a terminal, trying to figure something out - but what about when you've already figured it out and you want to repeat it in the future?

It turns out that Bash has you covered. Since shell commands are just text, they can live in a text file as easily as they can be typed.

learn you an editor

We've skirted the topic so far, but now that we're talking about writing out text files in earnest, you're going to want a text editor.

My editor is where I spend most of my time that isn't in a web browser, because it's where I write both code and prose. It turns out that the features which make a good code editor overlap a lot with the ones that make a good editor of English sentences.

So what should you use? Well, there have been other contenders in recent years, but in truth nothing comes close to dethroning the Great Old Ones of text editing. Emacs is a creature both primal and sophisticated, like an avatar of some interstellar civilization that evolved long before multicellular life existed on earth and seeded the galaxy with incomprehensible artefacts and colossal engineering projects. Vim is like a lovable chainsaw-studded robot with the most elegant keyboard interface in history secretly emblazoned on its shining diamond heart.

It's worth the time it takes to learn one of the serious editors, but there are easier places to start. Nano, for example, is easy to pick up, and should be available on most systems. To start it, just say:

$ nano file

You should see something like this:

-> nano <-

Arrow keys will move your cursor around, and typing stuff will make it appear in the file. This is pretty much like every other editor you've ever used. If you haven't used Nano before, that stuff along the bottom of the terminal is a reference to the most commonly used commands. ^ is a convention for "Ctrl", so ^O means Ctrl-o (the case of the letter doesn't actually matter), which will save the file you're working on. Ctrl-x will quit, which is probably the first important thing to know about any given editor.

d.i.y. utilities

So back to putting commands in text files. Here's a file I just created in my editor:

$ cat okpoems
#!/bin/bash

# find all the marker files and get the name of
# the directory containing each
find ~/p1k3/archives -name 'meta-ok-poem' | xargs -n1 dirname

exit 0

This is known as a script. There are a handful of things to notice here. First, there's this fragment:

#!/bin/bash

The #! right at the beginning, followed by the path to a program, is a special sequence that lets the kernel know what program should be used to interpret the contents of the file. /bin/bash is the path on the filesystem where Bash itself lives. You might see this referred to as a shebang or a hash bang.

Lines that start with a # are comments, used to describe the code to a human reader. The exit 0 tells Bash that the currently running script should exit with a status of 0, which basically means "nothing went wrong".

If you examine the directory listing for okpoems, you'll see something important:

$ ls -l okpoems
-rwxrwxr-x 1 brennen brennen 163 Apr 19 00:08 okpoems

That looks pretty cryptic. For the moment, just remember that those little xs in the first bit mean that the file has been marked executable. We accomplish this by saying something like:

$ chmod +x ./okpoems

Once that's done, it and the shebang line in combination mean that typing ./okpoems will have the same effect as typing bash okpoems:

$ ./okpoems
/home/brennen/p1k3/archives/2013/2/9
/home/brennen/p1k3/archives/2012/3/17
/home/brennen/p1k3/archives/2012/3/26

heavy lifting

okpoems demonstrates the basics, but it doesn't do very much. Here's a script with a little more substance to it:

$ cat markpoem
#!/bin/bash

# $1 is the first parameter to our script
POEM=$1

# Complain and exit if we weren't given a path:
if [ ! $POEM ]; then
  echo 'usage: markpoem <path>'

  # Confusingly, an exit status of 0 means to the shell that everything went
  # fine, while any other number means that something went wrong.
  exit 64
fi

if [ ! -e $POEM ]; then
  echo "$POEM not found"
  exit 66
fi

echo "marking $POEM an ok poem"

POEM_BASENAME=$(basename $POEM)

# If the target is a plain file instead of a directory, make it into
# a directory and move the content into $POEM/index:
if [ -f $POEM ]; then
  echo "making $POEM into a directory, moving content to"
  echo "  $POEM/index"
  TEMPFILE="/tmp/$POEM_BASENAME.$(date +%s.%N)"
  mv $POEM $TEMPFILE
  mkdir $POEM
  mv $TEMPFILE $POEM/index
fi

if [ -d $POEM ]; then
  # touch(1) will either create the file or update its timestamp:
  touch $POEM/meta-ok-poem
else
  echo "something broke - why isn't $POEM a directory?"
  file $POEM
fi

# Signal that all is copacetic:
echo kthxbai
exit 0

Both of these scripts are imperfect, but they were quick to write, they're made out of standard commands, and I don't yet hate myself for them: All signs that I'm not totally on the wrong track with the meta-ok-poem abstraction, and could live with it as part of an ongoing writing project. okpoems and markpoem would also be easy to use with custom keybindings in my editor. In a few more lines of code, I can build a system to wade through the list of candidate files and quickly mark the interesting ones.

generality

So what's lacking here? Well, probably a bunch of things, feature-wise. I can imagine writing a script to unmark a poem, for example. That said, there's one really glaring problem. "Ok poem" is only one kind of property a blog entry might possess. Suppose I wanted a way to express that a poem is terrible?

It turns out I already know how to add properties to an entry. If I generalize just a little, the tools become much more flexible.

$ ./addprop /home/brennen/p1k3/archives/2012/3/26 meta-terrible-poem
marking /home/brennen/p1k3/archives/2012/3/26 with meta-terrible-poem
kthxbai
$ ./findprop meta-terrible-poem
/home/brennen/p1k3/archives/2012/3/26

addprop is only a little different from markpoem. It takes two parameters instead of one - the target entry and a property to add.

$ cat addprop
#!/bin/bash

ENTRY=$1
PROPERTY=$2

# Complain and exit if we weren't given a path and a property:
if [[ ! $ENTRY || ! $PROPERTY ]]; then
  echo "usage: addprop <path> <property>"
  exit 64
fi

if [ ! -e $ENTRY ]; then
  echo "$ENTRY not found"
  exit 66
fi

echo "marking $ENTRY with $PROPERTY"

# If the target is a plain file instead of a directory, make it into
# a directory and move the content into $ENTRY/index:
if [ -f $ENTRY ]; then
  echo "making $ENTRY into a directory, moving content to"
  echo "  $ENTRY/index"

  # Get a safe temporary file:
  TEMPFILE=`mktemp`

  mv $ENTRY $TEMPFILE
  mkdir $ENTRY
  mv $TEMPFILE $ENTRY/index
fi

if [ -d $ENTRY ]; then
  touch $ENTRY/$PROPERTY
else
  echo "something broke - why isn't $ENTRY a directory?"
  file $ENTRY
fi

echo kthxbai
exit 0

Meanwhile, findprop is more or less okpoems, but with a parameter for the property to find:

$ cat findprop
#!/bin/bash

if [ ! $1 ]
then
  echo "usage: findprop <property>"
  exit
fi

# find all the marker files and get the name of
# the directory containing each
find ~/p1k3/archives -name $1 | xargs -n1 dirname

exit 0

These scripts aren't much more complicated than their poem-specific counterparts, but now they can be used to solve problems I haven't even thought of yet, and included in other scripts that need their functionality.